Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been widely used worldwide to treat both humans and animals since first developed by Ciba-Geigy, now Novartis, in 1973. Trade names include Voltaren, Cataflam, Acoflam and many others. Concerns regarding the safety of such products for European vultures and other carrion-eaters like the golden eagle and the rare Spanish imperial eagle were raised earlier this year by a coalition of nature protection organizations led by the Vulture Conservation Foundation. The EU Commission subsequently initiated a referral procedure pursuant to article 35 of Directive 2001/82/EC on veterinary medicinal products to screen the drug for its possible impact on the scavengers.
The assessment, performed by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), concluded that the veterinary use of diclofenac in livestock animals poses a risk to European vultures and other necrophageous bird species. By acknowledging such a risk despite the lack of evidence “that a vulture in the European Union has been exposed or died as a result of feeding on carcasses from food-producing animals treated with diclofenac”, the EMA adopts a preventive approach and reasons by analogy with cases of intoxication seen in non-European countries to fill this “major data gap.”
A group of European vultures: Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus), Cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus), Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus). Author: Richard Lydekker (1849-1915). This image is in the public domain.
The direct connection between diclofenac ingestion and vulture mortality is indeed well established. Continue reading
The Mercantour (core and peripheral area). The area discussed in the present article is contained in the black square.
Created in 1979, the Parc National du Mercantour boasts a unique mixture of nature and culture on its 685 sq km alpine territory made up of six distinctive valleys dominated by mountain tops over 3,000 m. Though omniscient and diverse, the local wilderness has long coexisted with men whose early presence in the area is attested by the scattered remnants of former human activities (rock engravings, chapels, defensive fortifications ruins, military blockhaus, old sheep/cow pens…) and a multitude of hamlets remarkably erected on the steepest slopes of the park’s buffer zone (1,465 sq km). Built in a stair-like fashion amid the lush vegetation, the traditional rock houses give the impression of having literally grown out of the mountain stone. Visitors shall feel amazed at the sighting of such surreal constructions and a little frightened when accessing some of these unconventional dwellings via curvy one-lane roads.
View from the end of the road leading to Roubion. Credit: Yalakom
An archetype of such picturesque villages is Roubion. Perched at an altitude of 1,336 m in the Vallée de la Tinée, this charming medieval town of 125 inhabitants makes for an ideal base for those wishing to explore the multiple facets of the Mercantour. Roubion will introduce visitors to the local lifestyle, past and present, while providing easy access to the park’s core area via the hiking trails that run through its narrow, cobbled streets. Refreshing source water feeds Continue reading