Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been widely used worldwide to treat both humans and animals since first developed by Ciba-Geigy, now Novartis, in 1973. Trade names include Voltaren, Cataflam, Acoflam and many others. Concerns regarding the safety of such products for European vultures and other carrion-eaters like the golden eagle and the rare Spanish imperial eagle were raised earlier this year by a coalition of nature protection organizations led by the Vulture Conservation Foundation. The EU Commission subsequently initiated a referral procedure pursuant to article 35 of Directive 2001/82/EC on veterinary medicinal products to screen the drug for its possible impact on the scavengers.
The assessment, performed by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), concluded that the veterinary use of diclofenac in livestock animals poses a risk to European vultures and other necrophageous bird species. By acknowledging such a risk despite the lack of evidence “that a vulture in the European Union has been exposed or died as a result of feeding on carcasses from food-producing animals treated with diclofenac”, the EMA adopts a preventive approach and reasons by analogy with cases of intoxication seen in non-European countries to fill this “major data gap.”