There is nothing but feral horses on the earth. The fascination with the Przewalski horse, the so-called last wild horse, may have well come to an abrupt end. A new horse DNA study by Orlando et al. has revealed that the Mongolian horse is in fact feral, not wild as previously thought. This is a huge surprise and casts a veil on the true origin of the modern horse. It will be interesting to see what future studies unravel.
Przewalski Horses at the Haus zur Wildnis, Germany. Credit: Yalakom
For more information about this new study, you can read the following article: Ancient DNA upends the horse family tree, published by Sience on February 22.
Naturally, these findings make parts of my story of the Asian Wild Horse obsolete and inaccurate, but I will not blame you if you still wish to have a read! There is no denial that the story of the Przewalski horse remains an interesting one at the very least from a conservation and historic point of view.
3 REASONS WHY WE SHOULDN’T PRODUCE MORE PLASTIC THAN WE NEED
―Manufacturing plastics requires the use of non-renewable resources. All plastics are derived from organic products and none are energy-efficient to produce.
Synthesizing too much plastic from petroleum or gas is a waste of non-renewable natural resources. Nowadays, 8% of the global oil production is devoted to the making of so-called conventional plastics: 4% as feedstock and 4% during manufacture. As an example, producing a 1L plastic water bottle requires about a quarter of a liter of oil.
That plastics can now be made from a wide range of renewable feedstocks (corn, sugarcane, soy, canola, etc.) does not change anything. Bioplastics still consume fossil fuels for their making and often Continue reading
THE INEFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF PLASTIC WASTE
You may first want to read How we filled the oceans with plastic in just over 60 years for some context about plastic waste.
The standard for the rational management of plastics and other materials through their life cycle is the concept of waste hierarchy. Loosely implemented by Western countries over the past forty years, it has led to more or less sustainable outcomes in Europe and the United States.
B, C and D are waste recovery operations. According to the European Court of Justice, the “principal objective [of waste recovery] is that the waste serve a useful purpose in replacing other materials which would have had to be used for that purpose, thereby conserving natural resources” (Abfall Service AG, C-6/00, 2002, known as the “ASA” case). This is also the definition of the 2008 Waste Framework directive (see below).
The waste hierarchy concept was first formulated in Europe by the 1975 Waste Framework Directive
(75/442/EEC), which encouraged the “reduction of quantities of certain wastes, the treatment of waste for its recycling and re-use, the recovery of raw materials and/or the production of energy from certain waste”
. Refined by The Netherlands in 1979, the waste hierarchy became known as the Lansink Ladder
, which ranked waste management options from the most to the least desirable for the environment.
Today, the sustainable logic that inspired the waste hierarchy and Lansink Ladder makes sense from an environmental and resource-efficiency perspective. Continue reading
HOW WE FILLED THE OCEANS WITH PLASTIC IN JUST OVER 60 YEARS
“Man-made items of debris are now found in marine habitats throughout the world, from the poles to the equator, from shorelines and estuaries to remote areas of the high seas, and from the sea surface to the ocean floor.”
Impacts of Marine Debris on Biodiversity, UNEP Report, 2012
A group of Black-headed gulls on the French coast of Brittany. Credit: Yalakom
Seabirds lead a precarious existence. Their marine habitats worldwide are littered with so much plastic waste that they often mistake plastic for food. Scientists recently estimated that by now 90% of all individual seabirds have ingested plastic debris, compared to only 5% in 1960. Continue reading
A NASA screenshot of the Presqu’ile de Quiberon
Situated in the Morbihan region of Brittany, the Presqu’île de Quiberon is a small French peninsula that used to be an island. Long ago, strong winds and currents formed a flat sandy isthmus that reattached the 9 km² territory to the mainland. Dubbed Isthme de Penthièvre, the narrow arm is no wider than 22 m in parts, just enough for cars and trains to circulate. Vulnerable to storms, it has been enlarged and reinforced by man-made dikes on several occasions since the 19th century.
Nowadays, Quiberon is a restful, invigorating and somewhat picturesque sea resort that welcomes thousands of visitors each year. Yet, tourism has not always been the dominant sector. From the second half of the 19th century fishing, especially sardine fishing, and canning concurrently developed as core industries leading to the peninsula’s Continue reading
Germany has a small coastline in proportion to its land size. The few seaside resorts found along the North and Baltic Seas are therefore highly prized by the Germans. One of them is the Fischland-Darss-Zingst Peninsula, on the Baltic coast.
A postcard map of Fischland-Darss-Zingst
This 45km-long peninsula belongs to the Nationalpark Vorpommersche-Boddenlandschaft and is a prime wetland area which attracts many bird species and other wildlife. Situated a 2h train ride from Rostock, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, this popular destination is a must-see for nature enthusiasts who enjoy a picturesque blend of nature and culture.
If you ever spotted apple-green birds the size of a turtledove with bright red bills during one of your strolls around Paris, you are neither colorblind nor sleepwalking. You merely sighted one of the many rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) that have made Paris and its vast suburbs their home.
Native of India and Sub-Saharan Africa, these tropical birds were named after the faint pink neck-ring—bordered by a thin coal-black line—present in adult males but missing in females and immature individuals. Although rose-ringed parakeets generally display a green plumage, color variations exist and some individuals are completely yellow (see below). Both sexes can mimic human voices, an ability that has made the bird a popular pet since Antiquity where skilled individuals cost more than a slave.
Parakeets were introduced in Ile-de-France by accident Continue reading